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>iDDDHDDDHDDD000000Near Surface Geophysics Glossary
Environmental and Engineering Geophysical Society
November 2006 Version
The following are data for a glossary on near surface geophysics with the intent of
improving communication between geophysicists and engineers,
providing a reference for people new to the field, and
a quick resource for geophysicists outside their specialty.
It is planned to be a dynamic document which can be frequently upgraded.
The descriptions are intended to give the reader a short, practical concept about many of the terms commonly used in geophysics, not to give rigorous definitions. Many terms that are common knowledge to a technically trained person have not been included.
If you have corrections, additions, or suggestions, please email them to Paul Wolfe at Wright State University. HYPERLINK "mailto:paul.wolfe@wright.edu" paul.wolfe@wright.edu
The addition of geotechnical engineering terms with descriptions would be particularly appreciated.
Several people have helped in developing this Near Surface Geophysics Glossary, particularly Chuck Young of Michigan Tech. Thanks to all who have helped and to those who submit improvements.
Paul Wolfe, Emeritus Professor, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio
This glossary is written in Microsoft Word. You are encouraged to download it to you computer for quick access. Check back to the EEGS web site occasionally for an updated version.
You can go directly to any letter in the glossary by:
1. on a PC - holding down the control key and clicking on a letter in the list below.
2. on a Mac with Word - clicking on a letter in the list below.
3. on UNIX with Word - clicking on a letter in the list below.
You can use the Find tool in Words Edit menu to lock for specific terms or words within the descriptions.
HYPERLINK \l "_A" A HYPERLINK \l "_B" B HYPERLINK \l "_C" C HYPERLINK \l "_D" D HYPERLINK \l "_E" E HYPERLINK \l "_F" F HYPERLINK \l "_G" G HYPERLINK \l "_H" H HYPERLINK \l "_I" I HYPERLINK \l "_J" J HYPERLINK \l "_K" K HYPERLINK \l "_L" L HYPERLINK \l "_M" M HYPERLINK \l "_N" N HYPERLINK \l "_O" O HYPERLINK \l "_P" P HYPERLINK \l "_Q" Q HYPERLINK \l "_R" R HYPERLINK \l "_S" S HYPERLINK \l "_T" T HYPERLINK \l "_U" U HYPERLINK \l "_V" V HYPERLINK \l "_W" W HYPERLINK \l "_X" X HYPERLINK \l "_Y" Y HYPERLINK \l "_Z" Z
A
ABEMGeophysical equipment company based in Sundbyberg, SwedenabsorptionThe process by which energy, signal, a chemical, etc. Is removed from a wave, flow, solution, etc.absorption coefficientA numerical measure of the rate at which absorption occursACAlternating currentaccelerated weight dropA seismic energy source that produces waves by the impact of a falling object with the ground, where the rate of fall is enhanced by a mechanical or pneumatic deviceaccelerometerA transducer that produces an electrical signal that is proportional to the accelerationacidic rockA rock containing more than 66% SiO2acousticAn adjective referring to properties or devices that depend on pressure waves in or near the audible range of about 20 to 20,000 Hzacoustic impedanceA seismic wave parameter that is the product of density and seismic wave speed (Z=density * V)acoustic logA well log that displays a continuous record of the seismic velocity of the rocks in the borehole wall as a function of depth; also called sonic log or continuous velocity logacoustic waveA propagating pressure wave, frequently used as an approximation to a full seismic waveaditA horizontal entry into an underground mineadsorptionThe process of removal of a chemical or other substance from a fluid by attachment of the species to solid surfaces in the transmitting materialAEMAirborne electromagneticsaeromagneticA magnetic survey conducted from an aircraftAFMAGAudio-frequency magnetic methodAGCAutomatic gain control, a method for reducing the range of amplitude of a signal by scaling in a sliding data windowair gunA source that produces seismic waves by rapidly releasing high pressure from an underwater chamberair waveAn acoustic wave that propagates through the air from a seismic sourcealiasingAn effect of producing false frequency components in digitally sampled data when the sampling rate is lower than the Nyquist frequencyalkali-vapor magnetometerA magnetometer that relies on the dependence of energy levels in alkali atoms on the magnetic fieldalluviumDeposits made by streams in its channel, in its delta and on its floodplain, usually unconsolidatedaltitudeThe vertical height above a reference level, usually mean sea levelAMAmplitude modulatedambiguityThe fact that a number of different, sometimes drastically different, geological material distributions or models can produce identical or very similar geophysical responses ampereThe basic unit of electrical current flow; 1 ampere = 1 coulomb per secondamplitudeThe maximum disturbance from equilibrium of a physical variable representing a wave; e.g., for an electromagnetic wave with amplitude Emax, the electric field oscillates between +Emax and Emax.amplitude spectrumThe distribution of the amplitudes of the Fourier components of a signal as a function of frequencyangle of incidenceThe angle between the direction of a ray incident on a surface and the normal (perpendicular) to the surfaceangular frequencyFrequency expressed in radians per second; angular frequency = 2*frequency in hertzanionNegatively charged ionanomalousAdjective denoting an anomalyanomalyAn object, zone, or data that deviates from the typical surroundingsantennaA device for radiating and/or receiving electromagnetic wavesantialias filterAn electrical filter to remove high frequency components of a signal that would otherwise lead to aliasinganticlineA geological structure where the rock layers are highest along the axis and descend on either sideantiferromagneticA material which has sublattices of atomic spins that are perfectly aligned within each sublattice but the sublattices have antiparallel alignment resulting in zero net magnetizationapertureThe opening area, real or conceptual, through which signal is admitted to a measuring systemAPEXManufacturer of electromagnetic instrumentsapparent conductivityThe conductivity calculated from electrical or electromagnetic survey results on the assumption that the earth is a homogeneous, isotropic half spaceapparent resistivityThe resistivity calculated from electrical survey results on the assumption that the earth is a homogeneous, isotropic half spaceapparent velocityThe velocity of wave propagation that is calculated from the rate at which a disturbance is observed to move along the surface of the ground, it is greater than or equal to the true velocity of the waves in the earthaquiferA rock formation or soil zone that is saturated with ground water and has adequate permeability to produce water from a wellArchie's lawThe formula relating electrical resistivity of a bulk material to the fluid resistivity, saturation and porosity of the materialarrayA physical arrangement of sensor for geophysical surveying, such as electrodes or geophonesarrival timeThe time at which a signal reaches a sensor from the time of energy input at the sourceARTAlgebraic reconstruction techniquea-spacingThe distance between electrodes in a Wenner resistivity arrayattenuationThe decrease in signal strength with travel distance through a materialattenuation coefficientA numerical measure of the rate of attenuation with distanceAtterburg limit testsTests to characterize the plasticity of soil for specified water contentattitudeSpatial orientationautocorrelationThe statistical result of correlating a signal with a replica of itselfautomatic gain controlA method for reducing the range of amplitude of a signal, frequently referred to as AGCAVAAmplitude variation with angle, the variation in seismic reflection amplitude with the angle of incidence of the wave, commonly used to extract Poisson's ratio from seismic reflection dataAVOAmplitude variation with offset, the variation in seismic reflection amplitude with the distance between source and sensor, commonly used to extract Poisson's ratio from seismic reflection dataazimuthThe horizontal orientation relative to north of an object or featureazimuthal anisotropyThe variation of a physical property with azimuth, commonly electrical resistivity or seismic velocityazimuthal resistivityThe variation of electrical resistivity with azimuth, commonly used to determine orientation of bedrock fractures
B
backscatterThe effect where waves (or particles) are scattered back into the region from which the incident wave (or particles) camebandpassThe range of frequencies passed by a filter or system which cuts out high and low frequenciesbandwidthThe range of frequency content of a signal or the range of frequencies passed by a systembarA unit of pressure equal to 105 N/m2, it is approximately one atmospherebase stationA reference point that is used in a gravity or magnetic survey to correct for temporal variations in the field; a reference point which is established to allow tying to other surveysbaselineA reference line which may be a line on the earth or a map for surveying for data reference or a conceptual line of reference on a well log, graph, etc.basic rocksRocks with low silica content, defined by less than 52% SiO2bearingA compass direction bedding planeA surface following the layering or beds in a sedimentary rockbedrockConsolidated, mechanically competent rock in place within the earth, it may be covered with soil or regolith or it may be exposed at the surfacebenchmarkIn surveying: a permanently set reference point with accurately known coordinate position. Alternate meaning: criteria against which performance is measured, such as the speed of a computer program for a specified calculationBetsy SeisgunA trade name for a seismic source that fires shotgun shellsBHTVBorehole televiewerbin sizeThe dimensions of the area used to determine which seismic traces to stack in the CMP methodbinningThe process in seismic reflection surveying where the surface area is divided into small regions (called bins) and all reflections which have a midpoint in a bin are summed to improve the signal to noise ratiobipoleA pair of electrodes with opposite polarity that are treated as an entity, if the spacing is small for the scale of the application it is called a dipolebirdA device towed behind an aircraft which contains instruments for an airborne geophysical surveybistatic modeIn ground penetrating radar: a technique which uses separate transmitting and receiving antennaebitIn digital electronics: the smallest piece of information, typically designated as 0 or 1; in drilling: the end of the drill assembly that cuts the rockblind zoneIn seismic refraction survey: an interface which does not show up as a first arrival at any source-receiver offset due to its small thickness and a seismic wave velocity which is insufficiently greater than the underlying layer.blowoutAn event when fluids and other materials are expelled from a borehole by the release of downhole pressure which exceeds the hydrostatic pressure of the fluid column in the holebody waveA seismic (or possibly electromagnetic) wave which propagates through the interior of a transmitting objectborehole gravimeterA gravity measuring devise that can measure the relative gravitational field in a boreholeborehole logA graphical record of the materials and/or their properties as a function of depth in a boreholeBouguer anomalyA result of a gravity survey after tidal, latitude, free air, and Bouguer corrections have been performed. It is commonly the final result that is interpreted for a gravity survey.Bouguer correctionA correction to gravity data that account for the gravitational attraction of a horizontal slab of rock between the station elevation and the datum elevationboulderA somewhat smoothed piece of rock which is greater than 256 mm in diameterbound waterWater in a formation which is chemically bonded to constituents of the rockbrecciaA clastic rock consisting largely of angular or subangular fragments of pre-existing rockbright spotOn seismic reflection data: a zone of abnormally high reflection amplitudebroadside orientationA survey where the energy source is significantly offset perpendicular to the line of sensorsbrownfieldsReal property whose redevelopment may be complicated by the presence or potential presence of pollution.Brunton compassA precision compass used for geological field that is manufactured by the Brunton Companybuffalo gunA seismic energy source used in shallow surveys; it consists of a very short barrel in which a shotgun shell is fired within a shallow borehole bulk modulusAn elastic modulus that gives the negative of the ratio of the hydrostatic stress to the volume strainburied valleyA bedrock valley which has been largely filled with unconsolidated material, commonly a preglacial valley filled with glacial deposits.byteA small group of digital bits that are treated as an entity, usually 8 bits that represents one character
C
calcareousAdjective for a rock containing calcium carbonatecalibrateAdjust an instrument to established standards for accurate, reproducible readingscalicheA hard layer that forms in the soil in arid regions due to deposition of calcium carbonate cement between soil grainscaliper logA devise for logging a bore hole which measures the diameter of the hole continuously along its lengthcapSee detonator capcapillary zoneThe zone above the water table in soil which has fractional water saturation do to the capillary effect casingThe pipe which is slid down a bore hole to keep the hole from collapsing, usually made of steel or PVCcathodic currentsElectrical currents used to protect pipelines from corrosion, these can interfere with geophysical surveyscavitationBubble effect cause by rapid reduction of pressure due to intense wavesCDPCommon depth point, commonly synonymous with CMPcesium magnetometerA devise for measuring the Earth's magnetic field which utilizes the magnetic field dependence of the atomic energy levels in cesium chainA unit of length sometimes used in land surveying, 1 chain = 66 feet = 20.12 meterschannel waveA wave which propagates in a low velocity layer (channel) between two higher velocity materials, the energy is significantly contained in the layer and spreads in two dimensions rather than three; the waves are dispersivechargeabilityA measure of the time-domain induced polarization related to secondary to primary voltage ratios.chirpA swept frequency signalchlorinated organic solventsA group of chemical that were commonly used as industrial solvents and degreasers that are a serious water pollution problemclippedA signal with amplitude larger than can be handled by the recording device and consequently has a maximum which corresponds to the devices saturation levelCMPCommon mid pointcobbleA somewhat smoothed piece of rock with a diameter ranging from 64 mm to 256 mmcoherenceA measure of the similarity of 2 or more wave formscolatitudeThe complement of latitude, i.e., the degrees of latitude measured from the pole rather than the equatorCole-Cole A method of characterizing the time dependence of induced polarization effects using an equivalent circuitcommon depth pointA technique of seismic reflection data acquisition, more appropriately called common mid pointcommon mid pointA technique of seismic reflection data acquisition where traces having different ray paths but the same mid point between source and receiver are summed after adjustments for geometrycommon offsetA group of seismic traces which have the same source to receiver distancecompetentAn adjective describing an earth material which has adequate strength to hold together under moderate mechanical disturbancecomplex conductivityThe ratio of the current to the voltage when they are not in phase, used in induced polarization methodscomplex resistivityThe ratio of the voltage to the current when they are not in phase, used in induced polarization methodscompressional wavesA longitudinal mechanical wave that propagates compressions and dilations of the materialcone penetrometerAn instrument for studying soil by pushing an instrumented probe with a conical tip deep into the groundconglomerateA clastic rock consisting largely of well-rounded fragments constant-spacing traverseA resistivity technique where the spacing between electrodes is held constant and the electrode set is moved at fixed steps along a line on the ground surfacecontaminationAny physical, chemical, biological, or radiological substance or matter that has an adverse effect on air, water, or soil.contrastThe difference in material properties, commonly for a body of interest to the background geologyconverted waveA seismic wave produced by reflection (or refraction) which is of a different mode than the incident wave, commonly it is a vertically polarized shear wave (SV) produced by an incident compressional (P) wave.convolutionA mathematical procedure for determining the output of a linear system for a specified input signalcoreA long tube of earth material produced by drilling with a hollow drill bitcorner reflectorAn optical devise which reflects a light beam directly back in the direction from which it camecorrelationDetermination of the relationship of two features such as rock units or geophysical signal responses; a mathematical measure of the similarity of two signalsCoulomb's lawThe basic physical law of the force between 2 electrical chargesCPTCone electrometer - a devise which makes subsurface measurements by pushing a calibrated probe into the earthcritical angleWhen a wave strikes an interface where the wave propagation velocity increasecritical distanceIn seismic refraction, the distance from the source at which reflection and refraction times are the same; this corresponds to the onset of the head wave arrivalcritical refractionWaves that refract at the critical anglecross correlationA measure of the degree of linear relationship between 2 signalscross-hole tomographyA technique for determining the distribution of physical properties of the zone between two bore holes by making an extensive series of measurement with the source(s) in one hole and the receiver(s) in the other; this applies to many techniques such as resistivity, seismic, radar, etc.cross-lineAn adjective describing something that is perpendicular to the direction of a survey linecrossover distanceIn seismic refraction it is the distance at which the head waves from the first refracting layer arrive at the same time as the direct wavesCSAMTControlled source audio magnetotelluric methodcultural noiseThe response of a geophysical instrument to man-made objects, devices, or activities which interfere with measuring the desired signalCurie temperatureThe maximum temperature at which a ferromagnetic material can remain ferromagnetic; variable, but in the neighborhood of 550 degree Celsius for a number of typical materialscurrentThe flow of electric charges, measured in amperescurrent densityThe current flow per unit area through a small surface area, measured in amperes/square metercurrent distributionThe distribution of current density through the earth as it flows between positive and negative electrodescurrent electrodeA devise, such as a metal stake, to act as an electrical current source or sink in the earthcurve-matching techniquesA resistivity interpretation technique which uses log-log graphs of apparent resistivity versus electrode spacing to com pare with theoretical curves; similar techniques can be used with some other electrical and electromagnetic methods
D
damping ratioA measure of vibrational energy dissipation commonly used by engineers, equal to 1/(2Q)darcyA unit of permeability; 1 darcy = 1 centipoise cm2/(atmosphere sec) = 9.87x10-9 cm2Darcy's lawThe law for fluid flow through a permeable material with flow rate proportional to pressure gradientdatumA reference level, usually an elevation, to which measurements are referenced, a common example is the sea-level datumdBAbbreviation for decibelDCDirect current; a constant voltage component of a signaldecadeA factor of 10decay timeThe characteristic time for a decaying signal or radioactive material to decrease to 1/e of its earlier valuedecibelA logarithmic unit for comparison of signal strength or power, given by 10 log (P/P0) for energydecimationReducing the sampling rate of a digitized signal by keeping only every tenth, fourth, etc. SampledeclinationThe angle between true north and magnetic north at a specified location, positive if a compass point east of true northdeconvolutionThe mathematical procedure for removing the response of a linear system from the output signal to find the input signaldegaussProcess of removing the permanent magnetization of a sampledelay-time methodA seismic refraction interpretation method for irregular refracting surfaces that estimates the depth from time difference between waves arriving at the surface and the corresponding travel time along the refractordelta functionAn idealized mathematical function that is zero everywhere except where the argument equals 0; for a continuous function it is sharply peaked with an area of unity(also called Dirac delta function), for a digital function it has a value of one where the argument equals 0 demagnetization effectThe modification of the magnetic field in a body due to the shape of the bodydemultiplexThe process of sorting out different signals that were mixed into a single data streamdensity contrastThe difference in density between the body of interest and the surrounding materialdepth mapA map of the topography expressed in depth units of a surface defined by a physical property of the materialdepth of investigationThe maximum depth at which a geophysical technique provides useful information about the subsurface; it depends on the technique, the local conditions, and the type of targetdepth of penetrationThe depth to which currents or fields used for exploration penetrate the subsurface, closely related to depth of investigationdepth sectionA seismic section where the vertical scale has been converted to depth using a velocity function; Similar sections for other geophysics survey techniquesdepth sectionA cross section expressed in depth units to a surface defined by a physical property of the materialdetonating cordExplosive cord that is used as a seismic energy source or for interconnecting other explosive chargesdetonator capsIn explosives - a small explosive devise which is detonated by a pulse of electrical current and is used to detonate a larger explosiveDGPSDifferential global positioning systemdiagenesisThe physical and chemical processes of altering sedimentary materials after they have been depositeddiamagneticA type of magnetic material which acquires a very weak induced magnetization opposite to the applied magnetic fielddielectric constantThe electrical property of a material that give a measure of its ability to store chargedifferential compactionCompaction of a group of sedimentary materials that varies in space due to differences in properties or external forcesdiffractionThe spreading of a wave front when it strikes a discontinuity in the propagating mediumdiffusionThe mixing of one material (usually fluid) into another by random molecular transport; the spreading of a signal through a volume of spacedikeGeology: a igneous, intruded tabular body that cuts across bedding; Engineering: a surface water control structure which is controls the lateral extent of water flow, usually long and relatively narrowdilatational waveA seismic wave or other mechanical wave where the particle motion is along the line of wave propagation; also called P waves and compressional wavesdipThe angle that a surface or linear feature makes with a horizontal planedipoleA pair of electrodes, one positive and one negative, that are close together compared to the scale of the application in which they are useddipole-dipole arrayAn arrangement of an electrical or electromagnetic survey where the source and receiver are both characterized by as dipoles and are separated by a distance significantly longer than the size of the dipolesdipole fieldThe characteristic electric or magnetic field produced by an electric or magnetic dipole; it possesses rotational symmetry around the dipole axisdipping interfaceA surface separating to earth materials when that surface is not horizontalDirac delta functionSee delta functiondirect shear testCommon laboratory test to measure shear strength of soil as a function of normal stressdirect waveA seismic or electromagnetic wave that propagate direct from the source to the receiver in a approximately a straight linedispersionSpreading of a material or field in space; this term has many uses including molecular dispersion, spreading of a wave form due to velocity dependence on wavelength, transient electric field spreading in the subsurface, etc.displacementThe linear distance of the physical movement of a body from one place to anotherdistalThe part of a sedimentary deposit that is farther from the source of the sedimentsdiurnalAdjective describing repetitive daily cyclediving waveA seismic wave that is continually refracted as the ray propagates through a strong velocity-gradient medium so the wave bends and eventually returns to the surfacediviningPurporting to locate water or oil deposits by magical methods, typically forked twigsDix equationAn equation relating the interval seismic velocity of a layer to the RMS velocity of waves reflected from the top and the bottom interfaces of the layerDNAPLDense non-aqueous phase liquids, contaminants which are denser than waterdolineSinkholedomainA zone in a magnetic mineral grain where the magnetic dipole moments of the atoms are alignedDoppler effectThe shift in frequency of a wave when there is motion of the source and observerdownward continuationA mathematical technique for using the field equations to calculate the field at a deeper level from know values at a higher level, becomes unstable near anomalous bodies and for noisy datadowserA person who practices divining for waterdriftA gradual variation in field or signal that is not related to the physical property being measureddrilling mudA suspension of fine particles in water that is used in rotary drilling to cool the drill bit, remove cuttings from the borehole and to keep fluids in the penetrated rocks from entering the holedynamic rangeThe ratio of the maximum to the minimum (non-zero, frequently noise level) signal that a measuring system can record; for digital systems it equals 2n-1 where n is the number of bits of the digitized signal
E
EEGSEnvironmental and Engineering Geophysical Societyeffective stressSoil mechanics: total stress minus porewater pressureEhOxidation potentialelasticImplies zero net displacement upon release of an imposed forceelastic constantsProperties of a material that describe its mechanical properties such as the proportionality between stress and strainelastic moduliElastic constantselastic waveA wave that propagates by elastic deformation of the transmitting materialelectric profilingA resistivity technique with a fixed configuration of electrodes that is advanced stepwise along a traverseelectric soundingA resistivity technique with the center of the configuration held at a fixed location and the spacing of electrodes increased stepwise (usually in a geometric progression) to increase the depth of investigationelectrical conductivityThe proportionality constant of a material that relates the current density to the applied electric field, commonly the property determined in an electromagnetic surveyelectrical resistivityThe inverse of electrical conductivity, the physical property determined in a resistivity surveyelectrochemical effectAn electrical response to chemical activityelectrokineticThe electrical response produced when a fluid is forced to flow through a permeable materialelectromagnetic soundingAn electromagnetic survey technique where progressively deeper layers of the earth are investigated beneath a fixed surface locationelectromagnetic surveyA geophysical survey method that normally determines the distribution of electrical conductivity on the basis of currents induced by time varying magnetic fieldselectromotive forceThe electric potential difference produced by a source such as a batteryEMElectromagneticemfElectromotive forceenergy partitionThe relative energy in the various outgoing seismic waves when an incoming wave strikes an interfaceenergy sourceSeismic: the mechanism for generating seismic waves such as explosive, vibrator, or earthquake; a source of electricity to power equipment, such as a battery or generatorentryA mine passage used for transport or ventilationEtvs effectThe change in the gravity effect due to the motion of the gravimeter along the surface of the earthEtvs unitA unit of the gravity gradient equal to 1 nanogal/cmepochA geologic time subdivision; the time at which a geophysical data calculation is accurateequipotential methodA geophysical survey method that maps the lines of constant electric potential on the surface of the earth, commonly due to fluid flow through a permeable material or electro chemical action of an ore bodyequipotential surfaceA theoretical surface which is the locus of all points having the same value of potential, most commonly used for electric potentialequivalenceIn geophysical interpretation: this the range of values for a combination of parameters such that the resulting response difference is too small to confidently detect in a practical situationERTElectrical resistivity tomographyevanescent waveA wave that diminish within a short distance of a boundary, commonly occurs when incident waves exceed the critical angle producing total reflectioneventSeismic: a feature, such as a peak, on a seismic section that can be recognized on several traces; an occurrence at a specific time such as an earthquakeexpanding-spacing techniqueA resistivity (or electromagnetic) procedure where the center of the electrodes (coils) is kept fixed and the spacing between them is expanded stepwise (usually in a geometric progression) to produce increasing greater depth of penetration, the purpose is to produce a depth profile of resistivity
F
fabric(a) The spatial arrangement and orientation of the components (crystals, particles, cement) of a sedimentary rock. (b) The complete spatial and geometrical configuration of all those components that make up a deformed rock. It covers such terms as texture, structure, and preferred orientation. faciesA rock unit that is distinguishable in the field by its appearance, structure, and compositionfan shootingA seismic refraction technique where the source is offset approximately perpendicular to the geophone spread so that the pattern of ray paths is fan shapedfarad (F)The SI unit of electric capacitance. One farad is defined as the ability to store one coulomb of charge per volt of potential difference between the two conductorsfaraday (Fd)A unit of electric charge. One faraday is equal to the product of Avogadros number (see mole) and the charge (1 e) on a single electron. Faraday's LawThe law of electromagnet induction which states that the voltage induced around a circuit is proportional to the time rate of change of the magnetic flux through the circuitfat clay A cohesive and compressible clay of high plasticity, containing a high proportion of minerals that make it greasy to the feel. It is difficult to work when damp, but strong when dry. faultA fracture or fracture zone where there has been relative movement between the rocks on opposite sides FDEMFrequency-domain electromagneticfemto- (f-)A metric prefix standing for 10-15 (one quadrillionth).ferricOf, pertaining to, or containing iron in the trivalent state; e.g., ferric chloride, FeClfilterA device or operation that selectively removes components of the input stream; a common type is a frequency filter which removes selected frequency components from a signalfirst arrivalThe first signal to arrive at a detector from a source input; the time of first arrival is the primary information for a seismic refraction surveyflopsA unit of computing power equal to one floating point operation per second.fluxThe rate of flow of a physical quantity through a reference surfacefluxgate magnetometerAn instrument for measuring the magnetic field component along the axis of a magnetically saturable core assemblyfold of coverageThe number of traces of seismic reflection data that are composited to form a single trace for the purpose if improving signal-to-noise ratiofootwallThe zone of rock below a faultformationA rock unit that is mappableFormation EvaluationThe analysis of subsurface formation characteristics, such as lithology, porosity, permeability and saturation, by indirect methods such as wireline well logging or by direct methods such as mud logging and core analysis.forward modelingThe process of determining the geophysical response that would result from a particular model, used in interpreting results or planning surveysFourier analysisThe mathematically procedure to separate a signal into its various frequency componentsframe A single image or picture. A single complete vertical scan of the cathode ray tube (CRT). free-air anomalyThe result of a gravity survey after the free-air correction but before the Bouguer correctionfree-air correctionA correction applied to gravity data that compensates for the location of the observation station at an elevation different from the reference elevation (e.g., sea level), it does not account for any rock that might be between the two elevationsfrequency-domain electromagneticAn electromagnetic survey technique where discrete frequencies are used, as opposed to time-domain EMFresnel zoneThe zone on a reflecting surface that contributes wave components that are within one-half wavelength of the reflection from the center when they arrive at the detector fundamental modeThe lowest frequency of a resonant system
G
GGiga, prefix indicating 109 in SI unitsgA unit of acceleration equal to the typical gravitational attraction at the surface of Earth (9.81 m/s/s)g.u.Gravity units, 0.1 milligal or 10-6 Newton/kg (or m/s2) gainThe multiplicative factor by which a signal is increased by a system or systemsGalA unit of measurement of the gravitation field (10-2 newton/kg) or the acceleration of gravity (1 cm/s2)gammaA unit of magnetic field equal to the official SI unit of 1 nanotesla, also equal to 10-5 gaussgamma rayA photon of electromagnetic energy emitted by a decaying radioactive nucleusgamma-ray logA well log that reads gamma ray intensity naturally emitted from formations. Shales generally produce higher levels of gamma radiation and can be detected and studied with the gamma ray tool. gamma-ray spectroscopy logA well log that records the energy distribution of gamma ray emission as a function of depth in the well; this provides information on the radioactive species distribution in the wellgaussA cgs-emu unit of magnetic field, equal to 10-4 tesla; the geomagnetic field is on the order of a gaussgeneralized reciprocal methodA seismic refraction interpretation method that uses the "optimum XY distance" to determine the point at which upward traveling waves leave the refractor to improve the interpretation. It avoids some of the pitfalls of simpler interpretation methods but requires a more complete data set.geoelectricAdjective referring to the electrical properties of earth materialsgeoidA theoretical sea level surface that is extended through the continents, it is a surface of constant gravitational potentialgeomagneticAdjective referring to the Earth's magnetic fieldgeophoneA device used in seismic surveys that senses ground vibrations and outputs an electrical signal that is proportional to the velocity of vibrationgeophysicsThe study of the Earth that utilizes the phenomena of physics to determine Earth propertiesgigaG, prefix indicating 109 in SI unitsgigahertz (GHz)A unit of frequency equal to 109 per second, or 1 per nanosecond. Cellular phones and microwave ovens operate with radio waves having frequencies in the gigahertz range.global positioning systemGPS, a system for locating positions anywhere on the surface of the earth using signal from the U.S. government satellite systemgoogolA unit of quantity equal to 10100GPRGround penetrating radar, an electromagnetic method for imaging the subsurfaceGPSGlobal positioning systemgrad or grade or gon (g or grd)A unit of angle measurement equal to 1/400 circle, 0.01 right angle, 0.9, or 54'.graded beddingA measure of the steepness of a slope, such as the slope of a road or a ramp. Usually stated as a percentage, the grade is the same quantity known as the slope in mathematics: the amount of (vertical) change in elevation per unit distance horizontally ("rise over run").graded beddingA sedimentary deposit with a gradational change in grain size from course to fine [ see also well-graded]gradientThe rate of change of the value of a field or property with distance; the first derivative with distance;gradient arrayAn electrical survey method where the two potential electrodes are closely spaced to provide a measurement of the gradient of the electric fieldgradiometerA survey device which measures the gradient of a field; a common example is two magnetometers that are separated by a short fixed distance and that measure simultaneously to allow the determination of the magnetic field gradient in the direction defined by the line of the detectorsgraticuleA sheet (usually transparent) with zones indicated by lines for use in integrating the gravity effect of a density modelgravimeterAn instrument for measuring relative gravity field values; also, gravity metergravitational accelerationThe acceleration of a freely falling body under only the force of gravity; typical value is around 9.8 m/s2; it is numerically equivalent to the value of the gravitational field in newton/metergravitational constantThe experimentally determined proportionality constant in Newton's Law of Universal gravitation; value is approximately 6.67 x 10-11 newton - meters2/kg2 gravity anomalyA localized zone of departure of the gravitational field from the average field surrounding that is interpreted as a density contrastgravity effectThe vertical component of the gravity field due to a body, which is the effect observed in a gravity surveygravity meterAn instrument for measuring relative gravity field values; also, gravimetergravity unitG.u., a unit of measurement of the gravitational field, 0.1 milligal or 10-6 newton/kg (or m/s2) ground penetrating radarAn electromagnetic method that emits waves in the tens of MHz to GHz range and records the waves reflected back from subsurface dielectric constant contrastsground rollSurface waves that are generated by a seismic source; Rayleigh waves are a major component; ground roll is a serious noise component that can obscure portions of seismic reflection dataground truthDirect physical observation that is used to test indirect interpretations such as geophysical resultsgroup intervalThe distance between the centers of geophone groupsGRS67Geodetic Reference System (1967); a formula for the smoothed gravity value as a function of latitudeguided wavesWaves that are wholly or partially constrained to travel in a 2 dimensional layer
H
half lifeThe time for one half of the nuclei of a radioactive species to decayHammer chartA zone chart that overlays a topographic map to make terrain corrections to gravity data (developed by Sigmund Hammer)hanging wallThe zone of rock above a faulthardnessA measure of the hardness of a metal or mineral. The mohs hardness scale is used in geology to give a rough estimate of hardness by testing which minerals are able to scratch the sampleheadHydrology: water pressure express as the height of a water column that would produce ithead waveSeismic: the upward traveling wave that is generated by an interface when incident waves strike it at the critical angle; these are the basis for refraction surveyshenry (H)The SI unit of electric inductance. An ideal coil with an inductance of one henry will produce a potential difference of one volt if the current through it is changing at the rate of one ampere per second.hertzHz, the SI unit of frequency corresponding to cycles per secondhidden layerA layer that cannot be observed as a first arrival in a seismic refraction survey because it has a lower velocity than the layer above or it is too thin in relation to the higher velocity layer belowhighElectronics: A digital logic state corresponding to a binary "1"; Geophysics: a zone where the parameter measured is distinctly higher than in surrounding zoneshomogeneousThe condition of having the same properties at every pointhorizonGeology: an interface between two bedsHorizontal gradient of gravity Or pseudo-gravity peaks over contacts between rocks of different density or magnetization.Huygens' principleThe principle in wave theory that each point on a wavefront acts as a generator of the wavehydraulic conductivityThe ratio of the fluid flow velocity to the pressure difference in a permeable materialhydrosphere The totality of water encompassing the Earth, comprising all the bodies of water, ice, and water vapor in the atmosphere.hydrophoneA sensor for seismic waves in water that produces an electrical response proportional to changes in pressurehysteresisThe response of a material to a forcing function that depends on the previous history of the interaction, for a forcing function it relates to energy transformed into thermal energy
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IAGCInternational Association of Geophysical ContractorsIGRFInternational Geomagnetic Reference Field, a formula for calculating the large-scale average geomagnetic field any place on the earth, it is subtracted from data to enhance local anomaliesIGSN71International Gravity Standardization Net, a worldwide reference system for linking local gravity surveysIGYInternational Geophysical Year, a large international program to collect geophysical data in 1957-8imageA graphic presentation of a physical reality, for example, a photograph or a seismic sectionimage resolution The area represented by each pixel of a satellite image. The smaller the area represented by a pixel, the more accurate and detailed the image.imaginary partThe part of a complex number that is associated with i [="(-1)]impact deviceA seismic source that relies on a sudden collision between a mass and the groundimpact-echo testingSeismic reflection test in a drilled shaft foundation element to test for depth and continuityimpedanceElectrical: the ratio of alternating voltage to current which may be complex with the real part being the resistance and the imaginary part being the reactance; Seismic: acoustic impedance = density times wave propagation velocity impermeableHydrology: not permitting water to flow through at a perceptible rateimpulseA sharply peaked signal such as might result from a mechanical impact or an electrical sparkimpulse responseThe output of a system when an impulse is applied to the inputin situ Latin for "in original place." Refers to measurements made at the actual location of the object or material measured. Compare remote sensing.incidence, angle ofThe angle between the normal and the direction of propagation for a wave striking an interfaceinclinationThe angle between a surface, line, or vector and the horizontal planeinduced currentAn electrical current that flows in a circuit or a material as a response to a changing magnetic fieldinduced magnetizationMagnetization in a material that is produced in response to an applied magnetic fieldinduced polarizationIP, an electrical survey method that relies on the delayed electrical response of earth material after a current flowing through them is quickly terminatedinduced voltageA voltage in a circuit or material that is generated by a changing magnetic field, it produces an induced current in conducting materialin-line arrayAn arrangement where sources and detectors lie along a common linein-phase componentThe part of an observed signal that has the same phase as the input signalin-seamA phenomenon or technique that is used within a coal seamIRISIncorporated Research Institutions for Seismology is a university research consortium dedicated to exploring the Earth's interior through the collection and distribution of seismographic dataIntensity of magnetizationMagnetization, M; the net magnetic dipole moment per unit volume of a material, units: amperes/meterInternational System of Units (SI)The International System of Units prescribes the units of measure with symbols and prefixes to form decimal multiples of SI units. The base units are meter (m), kilogram (kg), second(s), ampere (A), kelvin (K), mole (mol), and candela (cd).interpolationProcess of estimating a value which falls between know values, such as the density of a substance at a temperature of 270C when the values at 20o C and 30o C are knownInterval velocityThe velocity of waves through a specified thickness interval, typically one formationinverse modelingA process for determining a model that could produce observed results starting with the observed resultsinversionModeling: the process of determining a possible model from the observed results; Mathematical: finding the quantity whose product with the original quantity will give unityinvertCivil engineering: the lowermost flow line; Mathematical: find the solution to 1 divided by a mathematical objection Atom or molecule that has acquired an electric charge by the loss or gain of one or more electrons.IPInduced polarizationisoPrefix indicating having a constant value, for example, an isobar on a map is a line of constant barometric pressureisobathA contour of equal depth in a body of water, represented on a bathymetric chart.isostatic anomalyThe Bouguer gravity value that remains after the data have been corrected for the known effects of large scale crust thicknessisothermal Of or indicating equality of temperature. isotherms Lines connecting points of equal temperature on a weather map. isotopicAdjective describing atoms of the same atomic massisotropicAn adjective describing a property that at every point is independent of directioniterationRepeating a calculation with revised parameter estimates to reduce differences between the calculated result and some reference result
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JGRJournal of Geophysical Research, a publication of the American Geophysical Unionjoule (J)The SI unit of work or energy, defined to be the work done by a force of one newton acting to move an object through a distance of one meter in the direction in which the force is applied.jugInformal term for a geophone
K
kCommonly used symbol for wavenumberkarstA limestone surface that has been extensively modified by dissolution; characterized by lack of surface drainage, sink holes, and caveskelvin (K)The SI unit of temperature; a Kelvin temperature is 273.15 higher than the Celsius temperaturekickA sudden change in a variable such as the first break of a seismic traceKlauder waveletThe basic wavelet produced by the autocorrelation of a Vibroseis sweepKoenigsberger ratioThe ratio of remanent to induced magnetization of a body
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lagA time delay between two traces or eventsLam's constantsA pair of elastic constants relating stress and strain ( and )Larmour precession frequencyThe frequency at which a magnetic dipole precesses about the direction of the applied magnetic fieldlateral resolutionThe minimum horizontal distance between two physical features at which they can be recognized as separate in geophysical datalatitude correctionThe correction applied to gravity data for the global increase with latitude due to Earth's shape and rotationLee arrayA resistivity array with a fifth electrode in the center, potential differences are measured between the center and the left and right electrodes respectively to determine asymmetryliquid limitLowest water content, by weight, of a cohesive soil at which it can behave as a liquidlongitudinal conductanceA parameter characterizing the electrical property of a layer which equals the conductivity times the layer thicknesslongitudinal waveA wave in which the direction of disturbance is collinear with the propagation direction; Seismic: P wave, a compressional waveloopingA survey method where readings are taken around a loop with periodic return to a previous stations; this is useful for removing temporal variationsloss factorIn electromagnetic wave transmission at frequency (=2f) through a material with conductivity and dielectric permittivity , the loss factor P= / , it is used to characterize the rate of wave attenuationLove wavesA surface wave that is a horizontally polarized shear wavelowElectronics: A digital logic state corresponding to a binary "0"; Geophysics: a zone where the parameter measured is distinctly lower than in surrounding zoneslow-cut filterA device or operation that removes frequencies below a characteristic frequency from a signal with a controlled transition between passed and cut frequencies; also called a high-pass filterlow-pass filterA device or operation that passes frequencies below a characteristic frequency from a signal with a controlled transition between passed and cut frequencies; also called a high-cut filterlow velocity layerSeismic refraction: a layer that has a lower velocity than the one above so that it does not produce a head wave and is not detected as a first breakLVLLow velocity layer
M
magnetic anomalyA feature on a magnetic map or profile that is noticeably different from its surroundingsmagnetic declinationAlso called magnetic variation, the angle by which magnetic north differs from true (geographic) north magnetic dipMagnetic inclinationmagnetic dipole The simplest unit of a magnetic system consisting of a small current loop, but sometimes visualized as a pair of equal north and south magnetic poles separated by a short distancemagnetic dipole momentThe strength of a magnetic dipole; SI unit is amperes/m2; It is the product of the current and the area of the loop and has a vector direction normal to the area of the loopmagnetic domainA region of a grain of magnetic material that has all of the atomic dipole moments alignedmagnetic field intensityH, also called magnetic intensity and magnetizing force; SI unit is ampere-turn/meter a field generated by electrical conduction currents magnetic inclinationThe angle the earth's magnetic field vector makes with a horizontal plane, positive is downward.magnetic inductionB, also called magnetic field and magnetic flux density; SI unit is tesla; a field generated by electrical conduction currents and magnetic materials that produces a force on a current or moving electrical charge; related to H by B = 0(H+M), where 0 is the magnetic permeability of space and M is the magnetizationmagnetic momentMagnetic dipole momentmagnetic permeabilityThe ratio of the magnetic induction to the magnetic field intensity, = B/H; in space 0 = 4 10-7 weber/ampere-metermagnetic poleAn isolated source or sink of magnetic field which has never been observed in nature, but which is sometimes a convenient conceptualizationmagnetic stormA strong disturbance of the geomagnetic field due to high energy particle streams emanating from the sun; they can make magnetic survey data unreliablemagnetic susceptibilityThe ratio of the magnetization of a body to the magnetic field intensity producing it, k ( or ) = M/H (dimensionless)magnetizationM, the net magnetic dipole moment per unit volume of a material, units: amperes/metermagnetometerAn instrument for measuring the magnetic fieldmagnetotelluric methodAn electromagnetic method for determining the variation of the resistivity of thick layers of the crust by measuring the naturally occurring electric and magnetic field components as a function of frequencymaster curvesTheoretically calculated families of curves for a range of layered earth models that can be used for interpreting geophysical data, particularly resistivity and electromagneticMASWA technique for estimating shear wave velocity as a function of depth by recording surface waves with multiple sensors along a surface lineMaxwell's equationsThe four basic differential equations that govern electromagnetic fieldsmegaPrefix indicating 106, one millionmetal factorA quantity used in frequency domain induced polarization surveys to represent the apparent resistivity differences at two frequencies to help characterize sulfide ore bodiesmhoA unit of electrical conductivity which is equal to 1/ohm; being replaced by the SI unit siemensmicrogravityA gravity survey precise to less than 100 microgalsmigrationA numerical operation applied to seismic (or ground penetrating radar) sections to move the reflections, which may come from dipping reflections or scatterers, into their proper geometrical position on the migrated sectionmilliPrefix indicating 10-3, one thousandthminimum phaseA seismic wavelet that has the energy concentrated near the beginning resulting in a rapid rise and slower decay, this is approximately the waveform generated by an impulsive source such as an explosivemise-a-la-masseAn electrical survey technique where a conducting body is used as one of the electrodes, the other is placed far away, and the potential is measured at various points on the surfacemis-tiesThe difference between results obtained at common points by applying the same survey technique along different paths; examples - magnetic values at the point where aeromagnetic survey lines cross or elevation values by leveling around two independent loopsmobShortened version of "mobilization", the fixed cost associated with preparing for a survey or other equipment usemode conversionThe change in the type of seismic waves that occurs when a wave is obliquely incident on an interface; incident P waves may be partially converted to SV waves or vice versamodelA conceptual representation of a real system that allows theoretical analysis of system responses to various inputsmoisture contentFor a soil, weight of water divided by weight of solids, reported in percentmonopoleAn isolated source or sink of magnetic field which has never been observed in nature, but which is sometimes a convenient conceptualizationmonostaticGround penetrating radar: a survey method where a one antenna is used as both the transmitter and receivermultiplesMultiple reflections in seismic reflection or GPR surveys, they are the result of waves that bounce multiple times before being recorded, as opposed to primary reflections which arrive at the detector after a single reflectionmuteA numerical operation applied to seismic (or ground penetrating radar) sections to remove a section of the record in which noise overwhelms the signal and thus degrades the final result
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nanosecond10-9 secondnanoteslaA subunit of magnetic induction B equal to 10-9 tesla, commonly used in magnetic exploration; numerically equal to the older unit gammanatural gamma logA well log that measures the gamma radiation naturally emitted by the materials penetratedNDTNon-destructive testingnear-fieldThe zone near a source where longer range approximations may not accurately applynear-surface geophysicsGeophysics applied to the upper zones of the earth, typically the top 100m; sometimes called shallow geophysicsneutron logA well log that uses a neutron source in the logging tool to determine the characteristics of the surrounding material, most commonly hydrogen content, and consequently water content and porositynodeA point of intersection or connection used for measurement or calculation; a point of no motion on a standing wavenoiseAny disturbance picked up by a recording system that interferes with observing the desired signalnomographA chart for determining the results of a calculation graphicallynon-polarizable electrodeAn electrode used in electrical exploration methods that avoids the electrochemical action occurring when a metal stake is driven placed in the ground; porous pot electrode with a metal contact in a porous container filled with a saturated salt solution of the same metalnormalGeometrical: orthogonal, perpendicular to a surface or line; General: referring to the usual conditionnormal incidenceA wave or object that strikes an interface perpendicularlynormal modeA vibrational mode for an object or system where all parts vibrate at a common frequencynormal move outThe increase in arrival time with increasing distance between the source and the geophone of a seismic wave reflected from a horizontal surfacenormalizeTo adjust data to a norm such as a maximum value of unity or a common meannorthingThe distance north of an east-west reference linenotch filterA filter which removes a narrow band of frequencies from a signal, most commonly the electrical power grid frequency of 60 Hz or 50 HzNSG-SEGThe Near Surface Geophysics Section of the Society of Exploration GeophysicistsNyquist frequencyThe maximum frequency that can be contained in a signal if it is going to be accurately sampled for digitizing; Nyquist frequency = 1/(2*sample interval)
O
observerIn geophysics: the person who runs a recording system, such as seismic recordingoctaveA range of a factor of 2 in frequency; up one octave is double the frequency, down one octave is half the frequencyoerstedA unit of magnetic field intensity in cgs-emu systemoff timeFor a time-domain electromagnetic survey it is the time after the energizing current is turned off during which secondary fields are measuredoff-endA seismic shooting geometry where the source is beyond the end of the geophone spreadoffsetSeismic: the distance from the source to a particular sensor or sensor group; Electrical: a shift in DC voltage level; Geology; a displacementohmThe unit of electrical resistance, which equals 1 volt/ampereohmmeterA device for measuring electrical resistanceohm-meterA unit in which the electrical resistivity of a material is measuredOhm's LawThe linear relationship between voltage and current that applies to many common materialon timeFor a time-domain electromagnetic survey it is the time during which the energizing current flowsopacityThe degree to which an object's transparency is diminished; important in 3D visualizationopen holeA bore hole or section of a borehole where the walls of the hole are formed by the penetrated rock; not casedoptically-pumped magnetometerA magnetic field measuring instrument that uses the resonant absorption of light by cesium (or rubidium) atom to measure the fieldoptimizationSelecting the system and the controlling parameters to best meet the needs for solving a specified problemoptimum windowA seismic reflection technique where the source-to-geophone offset is arranged so that the reflected waves fall in a low noise window between the refraction arrivals and the surface wave arrivalsordnanceMilitary supplies including ammunition and weapons; of particular environmental concern is ordnance consisting of lost or abandoned bombs, artillery shells and mortar shellsorthogonalGeometrically: perpendicular or normal to a line or surface; Mathematically: functions that are linearly independentoutcropA section of bedrock that is exposed at the ground surfaceout-of-phaseA wave that has a phase different from a reference signal; A signal component that is 90 degrees out of phase is sometimes called a quadrature componentoverburdenThe earth material above a level of interest, commonly the unconsolidated layerOverhauser effectovervoltageThe decaying voltage that is observed in Induced polarization measurements after the source current is turned off
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paddingAddition of extra zeros to datasets in order to make larger mathematical transformations (e.g., fast Fourier Transformations).paleomagnetismStudy of the change of earth's magnetic field through geologic time.paleoseismologySpatial, temporal, and magnitude study of prehistoric earthquakesparallaxA change in an object's apparent position resulting from optical refraction; a function of observation angle. paramagnetismWeak magnetic interactions formed between atoms with incomplete electron shells.Parasnis' methodMethod for determining position of thin magnetic sheet.peak accelerationGround shaking expressed in terms of percent of gravitational acceleration (i.e., g, where g=9.8 m/s2). peak displacementGround shaking expressed in terms of particle displacement (i.e., double integration of the ground acceleration).peak strengthMaximum shear stress achieved from a strained brittle soil. peak velocityGround shaking expressed in terms of particle velocity (i.e., integration of the ground acceleration).peg-leg multipleMultiple reflection having a non-symmetrical travel path.periodTime required for one cycle, oscillation, rotation, etc.permeability1. Measure of a fluid's ease of flow through a porous medium,
2. Ratio between the magnetic field and magnetizing force.permittivityRatio of the electrical displacement to the electric field strength.Peter's half-slope methodMethod for determining depth of magnetic body.phase(+) Or (-) displacement of a sinusoidal wave from the reference position.phase velocityDistance traveled per unit time by a point of constant phase.piezometerInstrument used to measure groundwater head.pipingGroundwater flow and erosion through an engineered structure (e.g. Dam).plastic limitMoisture content of a cohesive soil that breaks when rolled into a 3mm thread. plasticity indexMoisture range of the plastic state (i.e., the difference of the liquid limit and plastic limit). plumeA distribution that has a shape resembling a feather fanning out from a narrow tip; for example, a contaminant plume is the distribution of contaminated ground water that spreads from a sourcePoisson's ratioRatio of the longitudinal and transverse strains.polarity180 degree phase change.polarizationSeismic: direction of particle motion in a shear wave, frequently specified as SV and SH for motions in the horizontal and vertical planes respectively; Electromagnetic waves: the direction of the electric (or magnetic) field vectorpoleA single point of special significance, such as the North pole, a mathematical singularity, or one end of a magnetpoorly gradedSoil composed of narrow range of particle sizes.poorly sortedSoil composed of broad range of particle sizes.pore pressurePressure of water within a soil's voids.porosityRatio of the voids volume to the total volume.potentialAmount of work required to move unit charge, mass, etc. To some position from reference a position.preconsolidation stressPoint marking change in slope on consolidation curve; indicates the value of the largest vertical stress soil has ever experienced.predictive deconvolutionUse of part of a seismic trace to predict and deconvolve another part.predominant periodPeriod of maximum response from an applied dynamic load.pressuremeterField test to measure a soil's in situ stress, compressibility, and strength.pre-stackProcessing operations made prior to trace stacking.primary reflectionReflection following a direct path to an impedance boundary and back to surface receiver.primary wave (P-wave)Body wave that elastically compresses and dilates particles in the direction of propagation.principal stressesCoordinate system containing the maximum and minimum stresses.probabilistic seismic hazard analysisSeismic hazard calculation that accounts for the uncertainties in earthquake location, earthquake size, and ground motion prediction parameters.propagationThe transmission of wave energy through a mediumProctor compaction testMethod for determining the maximum dry unit weight of a soil.proton-precession magnetometerMethod for measuring earth's total magnetic field; frequency of nuclei precession is proportional to strength of total magnetic field.pseudosectionA graphical representation of a physical property in horizontal distance and depth that resembles a cross section but does not directly represent the properties of the cross section, it typically requires an inversion properties to construct a cross sectionpseudo-spectral accelerationMaximum acceleration expressed from a single-degree-of-freedom system; although not true maximum ground motion acceleration, close approximation.pseudo-spectral velocityMaximum velocity expressed from a single-degree-of-freedom system; although not true maximum ground motion velocity, close approximation.psuedostatic methodSlope stability evaluation that idealizes dynamic seismic load as horizontal static force.pull-upLocalized, shallow high-velocity zone "pulling up" reflection and creating structural artifact.pulseSingle, short duration wavelet.pulse transientIP measurement that evaluates overvoltage as function of time.
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QQuality factorQuad/QuadA two-boat system with an array of 4 streamers and 4 sources to efficiently acquire 3D marine seismic data.quadratureSignal component out of phase.quality factorQ, Coefficient used in characterizing the intrinsic attenuation of seismic waves.quick claysHighly sensitive clays (i.e., undergo strength reduction with disturbance).quicksandUpward groundwater seepage that creates an effective stress, thus strength, close to zero.Q-waveSeismic surface wave most often referred to as the Love wave.
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radarExploration system that transmits and receives electromagnetic waves.radiation dampingStress wave amplitude loss due to the spreading of energy over larger volumes; sometimes called geometrical spreading.random noiseIncoherent background energy.Rankine's theoryApproach to the lateral earth pressure problem.ray pathLine drawn outward from seismic source that intersects wavefront at a right angle in an isotropic medium.Rayleigh waveSurface wave with an elliptical orbit oriented in a vertical plane; motion diminishes with depth.reciprocityEquivalent travel time for symmetrical forward and reversed refraction profile.recurrence rateEmpirical relationship describing the average rate at an earthquake of some size will be exceeded; characterized for each seismic source zone.reflectionReturn of a wavefront after encountering an impedance boundary; the properties of the boundary will determine reflected wave characteristics.reflection coefficientRatio of the amplitude of the incident and reflected wave; values of amplitudes are a function of angle of incidence, density and seismic velocity of horizons.refractionBending of wavefront (or ray path) as it propagates across impedance boundary.regional trendBouguer anomalies, produced from large features, which remain smooth over considerable distances.relative compactionComparison of soil's actual dry density to the maximum dry density determined by a Proctor test.relative densityRatio of the difference between the maximum and actual void ratios, and the difference between the soil's maximum and minimum void ratios.remnant magnetizationExisting magnetism in a rock independent of the existing polarizing field.residual anomaliesRemaining gravity anomaly after regional anomalies are removed; a function of local disturbances.residual soilsSoil formed from parent rock on site.residual strengthSustainable shear stress in a material after substantial strain.resistivityPhysical constant, along with length and cross-sectional area, of the substance used to construct resistor.resolutionThe ability to spatially and temporally detect/image/separate individual features.resonanceHarmonic loading applied at a medium's natural period.resonant column testCommon laboratory test used to determine low-strain dynamic properties of a soil.response spectrumDescribes maximum response of a single-degree-of-freedom system to a particular input motion as function of natural period and damping.Richter magnitudeEarthquake magnitude scale used in southern California to describe shallow earthquakes with epicentral distances less than 600 km.Ricker waveletAn idealized zero-phase seismic wavelet that is the second time derivative of the normal error functionrigidity modulusSee shear modulusrippabilityCapacity of earth to be excavated without drilling or explosives; often described in terms of compression wave velocityrise timeThe end time of a fault rupture.RMS velocityRoot mean square velocity - an average velocity determined by taking the mean of the square of the velocity for each time interval, then taking the square root of the result; the stacking velocity derived from normal moveout analysis is sometimes used as an approximation for the RMS velocity.rock quality designation (RQD)Percentage of rock core pieces longer than 100 mm; useful measure of fracturing, thus stability.rock susceptibilityThe degree to which a rock can be magnetized.roll alongA procedure for utilizing a number of detectors and/or energy sources to collect data along a long line; equipment from one end of the line is moved to the far end to advance along the line; common in seismic reflectionRossi-Forel intensityAn earthquake intensity scale.ruptureFractureR-waveAn abbreviation for Rayleigh wave
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SAGEEPSymposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems is the primary annual meeting of EEGSsalinityA measure of the dissolved solids in water, commonly in grams per kilogramsample intervalThe time interval at which a signal is sampled for digitizing an analog signal; e.g., a 1 millisecond sampling interval would result from uniformly sampling a signal at a 1 kilohertz rate.sample logA graphic representation of the lithologies penetrated by a well as observed from cutting samples.sample rateThe number of times per second that the value of an analog signal is measured in the digitization process; the sample rate is the reciprocal of the sample interval.sampling functionA mathematical function of infinite length with values of 1 at equally spaced increments and values of 0 everywhere else; also called a comb function.SASWSpectral Analysis of Surface Waves, a technique for measuring surface wave properties at a set of increasing spacings on the surface of the Earth which are inverted to determine shear velocity as a function of depthsaturationThe extent to which a parameter attains its maximum allowable value; for example, when water fills 70% of the pore space in a rock the water saturation is 0.7; for electrical signals it is the condition where the signal amplitude reaches the maximum level a circuit will handle.scalingAdjusting the size by some proportionality factorscatteringThe irregular redirection of wave energy (electromagnetic or seismic) due to non-uniformities in the propagating medium.Schlumberger arrayAn electrode configuration used in a 4-point electrical resistivity measurements where the inner electrodes which measure the electrical potential difference are relatively closely space compared to the distance to the outer current electrodes.Schmidt netAn equal-area plot for geological data using the Lambert equal-area projection.scintillometerA device for measuring radioactive emissions which employs a material that emits flashes of light when struck by a gamma ray, x ray, or high energy particle.secondary arrivalA wave, usually referring to seismic, from a specific boundary that arrives at a detector after the first arrival signal.secondary compression indexsecondary voltageA voltage measured in a detector: a) [for induced polarization surveys] after the primary current is turned off, or b) [in electromagnetics surveys] due to secondary magnetic field produced by current flow in the subsurface.secondary wave (S-wave)Shear wave (seismic)second-derivative mapA map of a field property over an area that is constructed by taking the second derivatives of the field map; this may represent horizontal or vertical derivatives.SEG formatA series of data formats recognized by the Society of Exploration Geophysicists for the purpose of standardizing the format of geophysical data for recording and transfer.seicheThe large-scale oscillatory motion of a body of water in a basin. The period is determined by the dimensions and shape of the basin.seismic anisotropyDifferences in the velocity of seismic waves in a rock unit depending on the direction of the wave propagation and the type and polarization of the waves.seismic discontinuityA sharp (relative to the relevant seismic wavelengths) discontinuity in the velocity of propagation of seismic waves at some surface in the material.seismic faciesA zone observed within a set of seismic sections that have a distinctive pattern of reflections that can be correlated across some area and frequently relate to a consistent depositional pattern.seismic gapA portion of an active fault line which has not had an earthquake as recently as the surrounding sections of the fault. This may be an indication of a zone with built up stress that is likely to produce an earthquake relatively soon.seismic hazardA fault that has the potential to move and produce a significant earthquake.seismic hazard assessmentThe study of potential earthquake zones to evaluate which have the greatest risk of producing damaging earthquakes.seismic impedanceAcoustic impedanceseismic riskThe risk of an earthquake producing various levels of damage in an area.seismic waveA mechanical wave that propagates through the earth or along its surface. It has many forms including p-wave, s-wave, and surface waves. They may be produced by earthquakes, volcanic activity, or mechanical devices.seismicityThe earthquake activity of a region.seismitesA geological deposit produced by earthquake activity.seismologyThe study of seismic wave phenomena; natural and man-made.self potential (spontaneous potential)An electrical potential (voltage) difference that occurs in the earth due to naturally occurring processes, most commonly electrochemical action or groundwater flow. It is also the name given to a geophysical technique that utilizes these potential differences to study the subsurface.semblanceA statistical measure of the similarity of seismic traces within a set.sensitivityA measure of the smallest signal that can be clearly measured by a sensor.settlementshadow zoneA zone on the surface of the earth where a particular signal is not observed due to the propagation characteristics of the materials directing the energy away from the shadow zone; most commonly refers to the zone where P waves from an earthquake are not observed due to refraction at the core-mantle boundary.shaping deconvolutionA mathematical technique to modify the shape of a seismic wavelet within a seismic trace; a common use is to make the wavelet zero phase.shearA deformation of a material where the displacement of the material is perpendicular to a set of planes with equal deformation; slipping a deck of cards is a simple model.shear modulusThe proportionality constant between shear stress and shear strain that characterizes a material within the elastic range.shear strainA measure of the relative perpendicular displacement of points in a material relative to the distance through the material; it is the ratio of perpendicular displacement per unit of distance through the material, it is inherently dimensionless being a ratio of length to length.shear strengthThe maximum shear stress to which a material can be subjected before it fractures.shear stressThe difference in perpendicular shearing forces on a body per unit of distance through the material.shear waveA seismic wave that is propagated due to shear stresses in the material; the displacement of the particles is perpendicular to the direction of propagation. They can have two polarization directions perpendicular to the propagation direction. Also called S waves because they are the second type of wave to arrive from an earthquake.shear-wave splitting (birefringence)The effect of the splitting of a shear wave into two parts with different polarizations due to velocity differences that are polarization dependent.sheet pileA corrugated steel sheet that is driven into the ground to form a vertical barrier.Shelby tube samplerA steel tube that is driven into the ground to penetrate the soil and then pulled out with a column of the soil trapped in its interior. The column of soil is examined for soil properties.shieldingIn electrical instrumentation - a metallic layer surrounding an electrical system to prevent interference by external electric and or magnetic fields. shinglingA pattern, such as in a sedimentary deposit with a sequence of overlapping layers like roof shingles; also imbricate or echelon pattern.shock waveA wave of high amplitude and short durationshootback methodAn electromagnetic survey technique designed for hilly terrain in which a transmitter and receiver are both used at each station location.shotAn input of seismic energy, originally with explosives, but now commonly used for any type of user initiated input, particularly impulsive energy sources.shotpointThe location of a seismic energy input. Also called source point, particularly for non-explosive sources.shrinkageA reduction in sizeSH-waveA shear wave which is polarized with its plane of particle motion perpendicular to the vertical plane.side-swipeSeismic (or other types) reflection energy that is detected from reflections that occur out of the vertical plane that contains the source and detector.signalThe desired field (seismic, electrical, radar, etc.) That is detected by a recording system.signal-to-noise ratioThe ratio of the signal strength to the strength of other fields that interfere with observing the desired signal; it may be expressed as an amplitude ratio or as a power ratio.sinkIn electrical surveys - an electrode at which current is withdrawn from the earth, as opposed to the source at which current is injected. In geology a place in karst topography where water drains from surface into underground conduits, more commonly sinkhole.site responseFeatures of a particular study site that characterize the background response to the instruments used in a geophysical survey.skin depthIn electromagnetic techniques - the depth to which the EM fields penetrate as measured by the depth where the fields drop to 1/e (about 37%) of the value at the surface.skin effectThe effect that very high frequency electromagnetic field propagate along the surface of a conductor.SLARSide-looking Airborne Radar (a trade name).smoothingA mathematical technique for reducing noise and local variability in data by taking a running weighted average of a data point and its neighbors.Snell's lawThe law of refraction. At an interface the direction of propagation of a wave changes according to the equation; sine i /sine r = Vi/Vr or = nr/ni, where i and r are the angles the incident and refracted rays respectively make with the normal to the interface, Vi and Vr are the wave propagation speeds in the 2 media and ni and nr are the indices of refraction in the 2 media.soilThe unconsolidated material on the earth's surface that is a mix of mineral and organic matter. Regolith.soil improvementChanging the characteristics of a soil for some desired purpose such as agriculture or construction.soil nailingsonarSound Navigation and Ranging (acronym); a technique for using reflected sound waves to image objects and irregularities in the transmitting material.sondeA devise containing sensors and/or energy sources that is placed in or drawn through a region to determine its properties; commonly used in boreholes, oceanography and atmospheric studies.sonicAn adjective referring to things that depend on sound or acoustic phenomena. sonic logA well logging device that measures the travel time of high-frequency acoustic waves between sources and receivers on a sonde for the purpose of a detailed determination of seismic velocities as a function of depth.sorptionThe removal of specific types of atoms or molecules from a fluid by attachment to surfaces on grains of a porous material.SosieA seismic technique that utilizes a sequence of pseudo-random energy inputs to observe reflections by cross-correlation of recorded data with a record of the input pulses. ( a trademark)sourceA device that puts some form of energy in the ground or naturally produces some type of measurable field; examples: seismic - explosive, hammer, vibrator; electrical - an electrode connected to the positive side of a power supply; gravity - an intrusive body that produces a measurable, anomalous gravity field.S-P interval (time)The time interval between the arrival of the P and S waves from a common source, usually from earthquakes.sparkerA seismic energy source that generates seismic waves by a high-voltage spark in water.spatial aliasingThe effect of incorrectly representing data when the sampling interval is too long for the variability of the measured property. The effect makes high wavenumber components misrepresented as lower wave numbers.spatial frequencyThe periodic frequency of a variable in space, such as might be expressed in cycles per kilometer. Example: the number of ocean waves in a one-kilometer profile of a section of open ocean.specific gravityThe density of a substance relative to the density of water; effectively equivalent to density in grams per cubic centimeter.spectrumThe distribution of energy as a function of frequency of wavelength for a signal. Example: the intensity of a rainbow for the various colors.spherical divergenceThe decrease in the amplitude (or power) of a wave as it expands in 3 dimensions, which would be energy spread over a sphere in a homogeneous medium.spheroidA geometrical shape which is like a flattened (or elongated) sphere, the cross sections taken perpendicular to the rotational symmetry axis are circular, cross sections perpendicular to this are elliptical.spiking deconvolutionA mathematical procedure for modifying a seismic data trace by altering the original wavelet into a shorter, highly localized wavelet (spike).split spoon samplersplit spreadA spread of seismic detectors for which some portion are on opposite sides of the energy source.stackVerb: to add together time sequence data records that are considered to have the same signal content but different noise content to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. Noun; the data sequence resulting from the stacking process.stacking chartA chart used in seismic reflection surveys to decide which traces will be stacked for each bin, i.e., to make a composite trace.stacking velocitySeismic or radar: The velocity used in the normal moveout correction which best removes the normal moveout effect.stake resistanceThe electrical resistance between a stake electrode and the ground.standard penetration teststanding waveA wave that is formed by the interference of oppositely traveling waves and results in a wave pattern that is fixed along the line of propagationstatic correctionA correction applied to seismic data to remove the effect of travel time differences through near surface materials that would otherwise distort the image of subsurface structures.static shiftA time shift of a seismic trace which applies equally to each data point in the trace. A static correction is normally applied to remove the effect.step functionA mathematical function where the values are constant at some value, typically 0, before a selected time T and are constant at a new value, typically 1, at T and later in time.step outThe difference in arrival time from trace to trace of an identifiable event on a seismic section.stereographic projectionA projection used to represent polar directions by the projection from a southern hemispherical surface onto an equatorial plane.stickogramstochasticAdjective: involving a degree of randomness.Stoneley waveA seismic surface wave that propagates along the boundary between two media, similar to a Rayleigh wave on a free surface.strainThe fractional deformation of a material due to applied stress.streamerA seismic device for towing a long string of sensors in the water behind a ship or less commonly on land behind other vehicle.strengthThe maximum stress before a material fails.strikeThe compass direction of the line of projection on a horizontal surface of a geological or manmade feature such as a dipping rock layer or a pipeline.strong-motion seismologyA seismograph for recording waves from nearby earthquakessuperpositionThe principle where the net wave or field involving several components is the simple algebraic sum of the amplitudes of the components at each time and place.suppressed layerIn resistivity surveys: a thin layer which does not have sufficient resistivity contrast with the layers above and below may not be identifiable on a resistivity sounding curve.surchargesurface conductivityElectrical conduction along the surface of mineral grains.surface waveA wave that travels along the surface of the earth; examples: Rayleigh waves and Love waves.SV-waveA seismic shear wave which is polarized in the plane formed by the local vertical and the wave propagation direction.sweepThe range of frequencies of a vibratory energy source that gradationally changes frequencies with time.synthetic seismogramA calculated seismic trace that is generated by convolving an acoustic impedance log determined from a well or model with a representation of the seismic wavelet. This is commonly used to relate seismic traces to borehole litho logic information.
T
takeoutAn electrical connector on a multichannel signal cable where a sensor, such as a geophone, can be connected to a pair of wires in the cable.telluric currentsA naturally-occurring low-frequency electrical current that flows over extended regions of the earth.telluric methodAn electrical exploration method used to map lateral resistivity anomalies in the earth on the basis of disturbance of the telluric current patterns.terrain correctionA correction applied to gravity data to remove the effects of topographic features in the vicinity of the gravity station.thermoremanent magnetizationThe remanent magnetization that occurs in a rock when it cools to below the Curie point in an ambient magnetic field.thin layerA layer of the earth that is near or below the vertical resolution of the method being used.tidal effectsThe time-varying effects on gravity measurements of the attractions of Sun and Moon and the yielding of the solid earth and its oceans under these attractions. time sectionA seismic cross section where the vertical axis is presented in seismic travel time.tomographyA mathematical technique for inferring the distribution of the properties in a 2- or 3-D region by making a dense series of measurements of waves or fields passing through the region along multiple intersecting paths. For example: determining the seismic velocity distribution from travel times between a series of sources and detectors in parallel bore holes.topographic effectsEffects caused by differences in elevation, these occur in varying degrees for most geophysical methodstorsion balanceA device that uses a pair of masses on a beam suspended from a torsion fiber to measure the gradient of the gravitational field.total-field anomaliesAnomalies of the magnetic field determine from data acquired using a total field magnetometer.totally reflectedA wave, seismic or electromagnetic, is totally reflected from an interface when it is incident at an angle exceeding the critical angle; the wave velocity must increases across the interface for this to occur.transientA disturbance which has a limited extent in time after a change occurs to the system.transilluminationLit from behind by transmissiontransmission coefficientThe ratio of the amplitude of a transmitted wave across an interface to the amplitude of the incident wave. Sometimes it may be expressed as an intensity ratio.transmitterA devise that emits an electrical or electromagnetic signal for geophysical exploration purposestransmissivityHydrology: the product of an aquifer layer thickness times the hydraulic conductivity; it is a measure of how well an aquifer transports water.transverse waveA wave where the direction of the disturbance is perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation; examples: electromagnetic waves in a nonconducting medium or seismic shear waves.travel-time curveA graph of the arrival time as a function of distance from the source.trend surfacesA mathematical surface that represents a smoothed version of a data map for the purpose of separating large-scale effects from localized anomalies.triaxial testtsunamiA long wavelength ocean wave generated by large-scale ground motions such as due to an earthquake; sometimes improperly called a tidal wave.tube waveA mechanical wave that propagates along a borehole.Turam profileAn electromagnetic survey method that uses two search coils a fixed distance apart to measure the variations in the field produced by a large current loop on the surface of the ground (or a long insulated wire with grounded ends).two-way travel timeThe time for a wave to travel from a surface source to a reflecting interface and back to a detector on the surface.
U
uncertaintyA measure of the precision of a measurement based on statistical measuresunconformityA surface of erosion or non-deposition between adjacent rock layersunijunction transistorSpecialized transistor often used in oscillator circuitsunit circleCircle of unit radius used for graphical interpretation of trigonometric functions and frequency responseUniversal Transverse MercatorGeographical (map) coordinate system using metric measure (meters)updateA correction of a measurement or system to a newer standarduphole geophoneGeophone at top of boreholeuphole seismicSeismic observations with receiver in borehole and source t at surface or vice versa uphole shootingUphole seismic with source in the borehole. uphole surveyA series of seismic velocity measurements in a borehole using a downhole source and surface geophones, usually to determine near-surface velocitiesuphole timeSeismic travel time for uphole shootingupward continuationComputation of potential field for a higher altitude based on survey data from a lower altitudeUTMAbbreviation for Universal Transverse MercatorUXOAcronym for UneXploded Ordnance
V
VaVariable area trace displayV2Wave velocity in the second layervacuum-tube voltmeterVoltmeter using vacuum tubes to achieve a high input impedancevadose zoneThe unsaturated soil zone above the water tablevariable-areaTime trace display with wiggly lines with one polarity blackened invariable densityTime trace display with trace value indicated by grey scale. varianceStandard deviation squaredvariometerMagnetometer which detects change of direction of magnetic fieldV-bandElectromagnetic wave frequencies in the range 46-56 GHzV-barAverage velocity ( the sum of the distances/the sum of the times)vectogram methodvectorPhysical quantity having magnitude and directionvelocityDistance traveled per unit time velocity analysisAnalysis of data in terms of wave velocity velocity filterTwo dimensional filtering of seismic data according to wave velocityvelocity focusingVariations in velocity which cause seismic rays to convergevelocity functionWave velocity as a function of position (usually depth)velocity inversionComputation of wave velocity from datavelocity logSonic velocity compiled as a function of depth, also called sonic logvelocity profileA cross section indicating wave velocity in distance and depthvelocity spectrumVelocity of reflected waves as a function of two way travel time velocity surveyA survey carried out to determine wave velocityVenn diagramA two dimensional logic diagram indicating combination of sets of informationvernal equinoxThe time in the spring when the daytime and nighttime are of equal length vernierScale for reading distances or angles that allows direct reading of subdivisionsvertical electric soundingResistivity measurement designed to determine variation of resistivity with depth, commonly abbreviated as VESvertical exaggerationThe vertical scale on a cross section is some multiple of the horizontal scale. vertical intensityThe vertical component of the Earth's magnetic fieldvertical loop dip angle methodElectromagnetic measurement which determines the dip of the ac magnetic fieldvertical profileA record of changes in an Earth property with depthvertical stackAdding together several traces with approximately the same source and detector locations to enhance signal relative to random noisevertical timeTime for a wave to travel a vertical distance (and back. Optional)VES
VibroseisVertical Electric Sounding
As seismic energy source using a hydraulically driven vibrator (TM Conoco)viscoelasticProperty of a material which is both viscous and elasticviscometerA device for measuring viscosityviscosityThe mechanical resistance to a shearing velocityviscous magnetismMagnetization acquired over a long period of time in the presence of the Earth's fieldVLFVery Low Frequency (electromagnetic signals in the 10 KHz to 30 KHz range)voice gradeA communication channel or circuit capable of passing intelligible voice signals (~500 to 5000 Hz).void ratioRatio of volume of voids in a soil to volume of solidsvoltmeterA device for measuring voltage (or potential difference). volume magnetizationMagnetic dipole moment per unit volumevolume reverberationReverberation within a volume, typically a volume of water (not reverberation from the surface and bottom)vortex sheddingEddies created downstream when a fluid (air or water) passes a long narrow object.
W
walkawayTest of signals created from a stationary source and receivers placed as successively greater distancesWarburg impedanceWarburg regionwater cutFraction or percent of water produced when pumping petroleum from a given formationwater injectionA method of driving petroleum to another well by injecting water into the first wellwater saturationPercent or fraction of water compared to the maximum amount that can be contained in a formation water velocitySignal (wave) velocity in waterwaterbreakFirst arrival of a signal through the water layer waveA roughly sinusoidal signal in a medium such as air, water or rock.wave equationAn equation expressed in partial derivatives. One of its solutions is a wave. wave impedanceRatio of cause to effect (strain to stress for seismic, electric to magnetic field for electromagnetic waves)wave spreadingReduction in intensity of a wave due to spreading or divergencewave tiltTilt of an otherwise plane electromagnetic wave, usually due to due to subsurface conductorswave trainA wavelet with a tail (coda) due, for example, to reverberation within thin layers. waveformThe time or distance trace of a wave. wavefrontA surface which connects the parts of a wave that have the same phasewavefront chartA graphical representation of spreading wavefronts, showing their shape as they pass through a horizontally layered earthwaveguideGeological or manmade structures which keep waves contained and guidedwavelengthDistance between consecutive crests for a sinusoidal wavewaveletThe fundamental waveform contained in a waveform representing reflections or refraction from multiple layerswavenumber2*pi/wavelengthwavenumber filteringFiltering wave data according to the wavenumber (requires multiple traces)weatheringNear-surface rock becomes fragmented due to interaction with surface water, freezing conditions, wind, etc. weathering correctionTime compensation to account for slower seismic velocity in the weathered layerweberMeasure of magnetic fluxweight-dropA seismic energy source that produces waves by the impact of a falling object with the ground, where the rate of fall is enhanced by a mechanical or pneumatic deviceweighted arrayAn array of detectors in which the contribution of the individual detectors is adjusted to produce a desired effect (such as beam steering)weighted averageThe average signal produced by summing the contribution of the individual signals which are adjusted to produce an improvement in the total signal well-gradedAdjective describing unconsolidated earth material that has a wide rang of grain sizes so that finer particles fill spaces between coarser particleswell logMeasurements or observations made in a borehole and recorded as a function of depthwell shootingSeismic observations with receiver in borehole and source t at surface or vice versa well-sorted depositA sedimentary deposit with a small range of particle sizeswell tieUsing information from wells to interpret or verify surface geophysical measurementswell velocity surveyInterpretation or summary made from wave velocities measured wellsWenner arrayAn array for electrical resistivity in which four electrodes are placed in a line with equal distances between the electrodes. westingIn land surveying, the distance west from the survey reference pointwhite noiseNoise in which the signal strength at all frequencies is equal (refer to concept of white light)whitenFiltering signals so that the signal strength at all frequencies is equal wide angle reflectionThe separation between source and receiver for WAR is greater than the depth to the reflecting surface.Wiener filterA Wiener filter converts a given signal into a desired signal wiggle traceA time-trace of a signal that is plotted as instantaneous value vs. Time. A conventional plot. (c.f. Variable density and variable area plots) wind noiseAcoustic noise due to wind (interferes with seismic signals)wind scaleA numerical scale expressing wind intensitywindowA region of times or distances. A larger data set is windowed to produce a subset of the data. wireline logA well log acquired by deploying instruments in a borehole. The instruments are suspended by a wire. witness markerA permanently located marker. wordIn computer usage, digital information comprised of a small number of bits. Usually eight bits. Worden A gravity meter made by the Worden companywowDistortion in recording caused by a slow variation in recording speed. A signal with a constant pitch sounds like the word "wow" on playback.WWVUS Radio station broadcasting a time signal (Carrier i!hjr
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lap$Ifs at 5 and 10 MHz and other frequencies.) WxAbbreviation for weatherWyllie relationshipA simple weighted average used to predict the physical properties of mixturesWyrobek methodA seismic refraction interpretation method for unreversed profiles that uses delay times
X
XHorizontal distanceX2-T2 analysisA method for finding wave velocity for reflected signals using the squares of the distances and travel times
Y
yardstickA ruler three feet long. A standard reference.yawRotation around a vertical axis. Refers to an airplane or ship departing from a forward course. Young's Modulusthe proportionality constant between the one-dimensional stress and strain of an elastic bodyyo-yoRepetitive up and down motion (named for the motion of a toy)
Z
Z/AAtomic number divided by atomic massZener diodeA semiconductor diode which, when reverse biased, maintains a constant voltage. Used to regulate voltage in a power supply circuit. zenithDirectly overheadzero frequencyDirect current (strictly). Signal of extremely low frequency (~ < 1 Hz). zero frequency seismologyStudy of earth displacements which occur at "zero frequency", such as tilt. zero-lag correlationThe value of a cross or auto correlation function at zero lagzero phaseA signal (e.g., a wavelet) for which all frequency components have zero phase. (The signal must be symmetric about time zero.)zeta potentialAn electrical potential produced by ion adsorption at the boundary of a liquid and a solidZoeppritz equationsEquations expressing seismic signal reflection and refraction amplitudes as a relation of angle of incidence and elastic constants. Zone chartChart for correction gravity observations for topography near the measurement station. z-planeThe plane for plotting complex numbersz-transformA time varying signal is expressed as coefficients of a polynomial using the variable z. A compact method of writing the frequency response of a time varying signal.
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