Seismic Refraction & Reflection
Seismic reflection and refraction can identify variations in material type with depth and horizontal position. The technique images the interfaces between materials with contrasting acoustic/seismic velocities. This translates to differences in the elastic properties and/or density of the material. Mapping these contrasts across an area can identify the extent and depth to specific layers or interfaces of interest.
The most common application of seismic techniques is the determination of overburden thickness or estimating the depth to bedrock. This is due to the large contrast in seismic velocity between intact bedrock and unconsolidated superficial deposits. Based on similar principals, the seismic technique has also been employed to determine the rippability of rocks in quarries prior to blasting / excavation.
- Stratigraphic mapping
- Geological mapping
- Estimation of depth to bedrock
- Locating sinkholes & channels
- Predict rippability of specific rock types
- Landfill investigations
- Estimation of depth to water table
- Geotechnical investigations